本实 用 新型涉及电磁离合器，特别是用于汽车的发动机冷却系绕或空调系绕的电磁离合器。 TECHNICAL FIELD: The present utility model relates to an electromagnetic clutch, and more particularly to an electromagnetic clutch used in an automobile engine cooling system or an air conditioning system.
电磁离合器是一 种 在电磁力作用下进行离合作 用 ( 即，实现动力的传递与中断)的装置，其通过对离合器中的电磁线圈的通/断电来控制离合器的接合与分离。 BACKGROUND: An electromagnetic clutch is a device that performs disengagement ( that is, realizes power transmission and interruption) under the action of electromagnetic force . It controls the engagement and disengagement of the clutch by turning on / off the electromagnetic coil in the clutch. . / 电气等各种领域，例如用于汽车的发动机冷却系绕、空调系绕等等。 Electromagnetic clutches are widely used in various fields such as mechanical, electronic / electrical, for example, automotive engine cooling systems, air conditioning systems, etc.
Take the engine cooling system as an example, this system is one of the key systems to ensure the normal operation of the car. 将 发动机的温度保持在正常或者最佳 工 作温度下。 The engine cooling system includes a water pump that pumps the coolant to make the coolant flow quickly in the engine cooling circuit to absorb the heat generated when the engine is working and keep the temperature of the engine at the normal or optimal working temperature. Generally, the engine reaches its optimal working condition when the water temperature (the temperature of the coolant) is 90 degrees. 内 部的冷却液不断循环。 In some existing cars, the pulley (drive wheel) of the water pump is directly connected to the rotating shaft. Therefore, after the car is started, the water pump is always running to drive the coolant inside the engine to circulate continuously. 升 很慢。 This cycle leads to a slow rise in engine temperature when the car starts . 温 达到约90度，在纯怠速状态下，发动机的暖机时间需要约20分钟。 If the water temperature needs to be about 90 degrees, the warm-up time of the engine in pure idle state takes about 20 minutes.
Therefore, the prior art has proposed a design for disconnecting the pulley from the water pump when the car is started, which can reduce the engine warm-up time to about 5 minutes. 地 达到最佳工作状态，减少了燃料消耗，更加节能环保 。 The warm-up time is greatly shortened, which can make the engine reach the best working condition as soon as possible, reduce fuel consumption, and save energy and environmental protection .
申 清公开CN 1 02216693A 公开了这样一种现有设计。 Chinese Patent Application Publication CN 1 02216693A discloses such an existing design. / 断电及复位弹簧实现制动器构件 1 60 的吸合 / 分离，进而带动卷绕弹簧 1 0 4 在径向收缩或者扩张，实现带轮与水泵断开或接合。 By turning on / off the brake (electromagnetic coil) and returning the spring, the brake member 160 is attracted / detached, and then the winding spring 104 is contracted or expanded in the radial direction, so that the pulley is disconnected or engaged with the water pump. Disconnecting the pulley from the pump requires the brake (solenoid coil) to remain energized for approximately 5 minutes.
阻 増加，电流下降，从而使制动器电磁力下降，进一步引起拨拉装置回位，使卷绕弹簧失去约束而径向扩张到驱动构件内表面，最终引起离合器分高失效。 However, the prolonged energizing current will cause the brake (electromagnetic coil) to generate heat, which will increase the brake winding resistance and reduce the current. This will reduce the brake electromagnetic force, further cause the pull device to return, and cause the coil spring to lose its restraint and diameter. Expansion to the inner surface of the drive member will eventually cause the clutch to fail.
1 60 没有极性，因此仅仅通过电磁铁的电磁力实 现 对制动器构件的吸合，这对于电磁铁的电磁力要求较高，即对于电流要求大。 In addition, the brake member 160 has no polarity, and therefore the brake member is attracted only by the electromagnetic force of the electromagnet . This requires a higher electromagnetic force of the electromagnet, that is, a larger current requirement. 用 寿命。 Therefore, it will increase energy consumption and shorten the life of the electromagnet .
In addition, when the helical spring coil is expanded to the inner surface of the clutch, due to the problem of stress control in the coil or the change in the friction coefficient when the surface is condensed due to temperature changes, insufficient friction may occur, causing the clutch engagement transmission to fail.
/ 0263981A1 公开了另一种现有设计。 US patent application publication US2010 / 0263981A1 discloses another existing design. 1 ；电磁铁8；软磁材料制成的衔铁3；以及转子2a。 The disclosed clutch is provided with: a permanent magnet 9; corresponding magnetically permeable devices 10, 1 1 ; an electromagnet 8; an armature 3 made of a soft magnetic material; and a rotor 2a. / 转子对衔铁的作用力增大，并可将衔铁保持在左侧位置，此时电磁铁可断开或减小电流。 When the electromagnet passes a current in the first direction, the magnetic field of the electromagnet and the permanent magnet superimposes and acts together to exert a force on the armature to the left. The armature moves to the left, and the gap between the winding and the rotor becomes smaller. The permanent magnet / rotor pair The force of the armature is increased and the armature can be held in the left position, at which time the electromagnet can be disconnected or the current can be reduced. 用 力变小，并在弹簧作用力下向右侧移动复位 。 When the electromagnet is conducting current in the reverse direction, the electromagnet generates a magnetic field opposite to the permanent magnet to offset the force of the permanent magnet on the armature. At this time, the force received by the armature becomes smaller and moves to the right under the force of the spring to reset .
且 大电流对 于 电气系绕的冲击较大。 In this solution, the electromagnet needs to cancel the magnetic field of the permanent magnet when the armature is disconnected from the rotor, instead of directly exerting force on the armature, so a large current needs to be provided on the electromagnet to achieve this function, which is not conducive to saving energy, and Large current has a greater impact on the electrical system.
In addition, in this solution, the torque of the pulley is directly transmitted through the attraction of the armature and the rotor, which has higher requirements for the strength of the armature, and the armature is relatively easy to produce large wear.
申 情公开 J P 特开2007-205513公开了又一种现有设计，其离合器设置有电磁铁23、转子22、软磁材料制成的衔铁2 1 、固定在转子中的永磁体28及弹性体29 。 Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 2007-205513 discloses another existing design. The clutch is provided with an electromagnet 23, a rotor 22, an armature 2 1 made of a soft magnetic material , and a permanent magnet 28 fixed in the rotor. And elastomer 29 . 共 同对衔铁施加作用力，使衔铁被吸至左侧，衔铁与永磁体及转子之间的间隙变小，永磁体对衔铁的作用力变大，并且可以仅 通 过永磁体 将 衔铁保持在左侧。 Similar to the aforementioned U.S. patent application disclosure, when the electromagnet is connected to a current in the first direction, the electromagnet and the permanent magnet together exert a force on the armature, so that the armature is attracted to the left, between the armature and the permanent magnet and the rotor. The gap becomes smaller, the force of the permanent magnet on the armature becomes larger, and the armature can be held on the left side only by the permanent magnet . At this time, the electromagnet can be powered off or reduced in current. 用 力，衔铁在弹性体作用下向右侧移动复位。 When the electromagnet turns on the current in the opposite direction, the electromagnet generates a magnetic field opposite to the permanent magnet to offset the force of the permanent magnet on the armature . The armature moves to the right and resets under the action of the elastomer. In this solution, when the electromagnet disconnects the armature from the rotor, it needs to cancel the magnetic field of the permanent magnet instead of directly exerting force on the armature. This method requires a large current to be provided on the electromagnet to realize the armature reset, which is not conducive to saving. Energy, and the large current has a greater impact on the electrical system.
告 CN202040232u 公开了又一种现有设计。 China Utility Model Patent Bulletin CN202040232u discloses yet another existing design. In the disclosed clutch, a permanent magnet 21 is provided in the chuck 2. 。 The suction cup and the pulley remain in a normal state of engagement . 1 1 通电时，产生与永磁铁相排斥的磁场，皮带轮与吸盘分离，即皮带轮与水泵断开。 When the electromagnetic coil 11 is energized, a magnetic field repulsive to the permanent magnet is generated, and the pulley is separated from the suction cup, that is, the pulley is disconnected from the water pump. 増 加能 耗 ，且缩短电磁铁使用寿命。 In this solution, the electromagnetic force requirements of the electromagnetic coil are high, that is, the current requirements are large, which will increase energy consumption and shorten the life of the electromagnet. In addition, the electromagnetic coil needs to maintain a longer power-on time, which is easy to generate heat and increase energy consumption. In this solution, the torque of the pulley is directly transmitted through the suction of the suction cup and the pulley, which has higher requirements for the strength of the suction cup, and the suction cup is more likely to cause large wear.
告 CN2037699 1 6u 公开了再一种现有设计，其中，在第一旋转体2上固定有第一磁铁50 1 ，第一磁铁沿圆周排布，且在径向上极性相反。 Chinese Utility Model Patent Bulletin CN2037699 1 6u discloses yet another existing design, in which a first magnet 50 1 is fixed to the first rotating body 2 , the first magnets are arranged along the circumference and have opposite polarities in the radial direction. . When the electromagnet core 6 is powered off, the suction disk 7 is attracted by the permanent magnet to engage the first rotating body 2, and transmits the rotation of the first rotating body to the second rotating body 3. When the electromagnet core is energized, the suction disk 7 is separated from the first rotating body, and the first rotating body 2 and the second rotating body 3 are separated. 非 直接对吸合盘产生作 用 力，需要大电流，能 耗 高；当需要断开吸合盘与皮带轮的连接时，电磁铁芯需要长时间通电，也会产生发热及高能耗的问题。 In this solution, the suction disk is also soft magnetic, not a permanent magnet. When the electromagnet core is energized, it needs to cancel the magnetic field of the permanent magnet, instead of directly exerting force on the suction disk , it needs a large current and high energy consumption. ; When the connection between the suction disc and the pulley needs to be disconnected, the electromagnet core needs to be energized for a long time, and it also generates heat and high energy consumption problems. In addition, the suction disc transmits torque directly through friction, which has higher requirements for the strength of the suction disc.
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